[203], Scientists say that the subsidence is permanent. The violent movement of the Earth's tectonic plates … [231][232], Japanese funerals are normally elaborate Buddhist ceremonies that entail cremation. [382], In this national crisis, the Japanese government provided Japanese Sign Language (JSL) interpreting at the press conferences related to the earthquake and tsunami. On 11 March 2011, a massive 9.0 earthquake occurred off the Japanese coastline at 14:46. [257] The Tōkaidō Shinkansen resumed limited service late in the day and was back to its normal schedule by the next day, while the Jōetsu and Nagano Shinkansen resumed services late on 12 March. [170] It was also estimated that the tsunami reached heights of up to 40.5 metres (133 ft) in Miyako in Tōhoku's Iwate Prefecture. [169] Also, at the slope of a nearby mountain from 400 metres (1,300 ft) away at Aneyoshi fishery port (姉吉漁港) of Omoe peninsula (重茂半島) in Miyako, Iwate, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology found estimated tsunami run up height of 38.9 metres (128 ft). [159] The tsunami washed away the sole bridge to Miyatojima, Miyagi, isolating the island's 900 residents. Indian Ocean Earthquake, 26 December 2004. Date of the Earthquake. [139] Wakabayashi Ward in Sendai was also particularly hard hit. [55] By summer the Vice-minister for Economy, Trade and Industry, the head of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, and the head of the Agency for Natural Resources and Energy had all lost their jobs. A magnitude-9.0 earthquake struck off Japan’s northeastern coast. [272] By 21 March 2011, the number of households in the north without electricity fell to 242,927. [160] A 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) high tsunami hit Chiba Prefecture about 2½ hours after the quake, causing heavy damage to cities such as Asahi. In comparison to the 1995 Great Hanshin earthquake, the East Japan earthquake brought serious damage to an extremely wide range. Approximately 30 homes or buildings were destroyed and 1,046 other buildings were damaged to varying degrees. Seismologists anticipated a very large quake would strike in the same place as the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake — in the Sagami Trough, southwest of Tokyo. caused the subduction which caused the earthquake. (The early estimate of magnitude 8.9 was later revised upward.) It was swiftly followed by five powerful aftershocks of up to 7.1 magnitude. [255], The Port of Tokyo suffered slight damage; the effects of the quake included visible smoke rising from a building in the port with parts of the port areas being flooded, including soil liquefaction in Tokyo Disneyland's parking lot. [86][fn 2] The largest individual recording in Japan was 2.7 g, in Miyagi Prefecture, 75 km from the epicentre; the highest reading in the Tokyo metropolitan area was 0.16 g.[89], Portions of northeastern Japan shifted by as much as 2.4 metres (7 ft 10 in) closer to North America,[38][39] making some sections of Japan's landmass wider than before. Problems in issuing updates also contributed to delays in evacuations. [285], An analyst estimates that consumption of various types of oil may increase by as much as 300,000 barrels (48,000 m3) per day (as well as LNG), as back-up power plants burning fossil fuels try to compensate for the loss of 11 GW of Japan's nuclear power capacity. Most of these deaths occurred in Fukushima prefecture, where the prefecture government has suggested that they could be due to evacuations caused by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. [296] On 14 March it was reported that a cooling system pump for this reactor had stopped working;[330] however, the Japan Atomic Power Company stated that there was a second operational pump sustaining the cooling systems, but that two of three diesel generators used to power the cooling system were out of order. [75] The hypocentral region of this earthquake extended from offshore Iwate Prefecture to offshore Ibaraki Prefecture. Kyodo News, "Survivors in trauma after life-changing nightmare day". Hence, earthquakes in this area with magnitudes of about 7 since 1926 had only released part of the accumulated energy. [103], A month later, a major aftershock struck offshore on 7 April with a magnitude of 7.1 Mw. [244][245] Although Japan has invested the equivalent of billions of dollars on anti-tsunami seawalls which line at least 40% of its 34,751 km (21,593 mi) coastline and stand up to 12 m (39 ft) high, the tsunami simply washed over the top of some seawalls, collapsing some in the process. KGW estimates that more than 1 million tons of debris still remain in the Pacific Ocean. (2011, 19 March) "Japan Earthquake May Have Shifted Earth's Axis" – NPR online, PreventionWeb Great East Japan Earthquake 2011, Interactive Comparisons of Tōhoku Earthquake and Tsunami, Map to chronicle all known disasters in Japan from 416–2013, Foundation of the Covenant official and international dedicated to the victims of the tsunami, Nuclear power in Japan, section Seismicity, Fergana Valley (Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=2011_Tōhoku_earthquake_and_tsunami&oldid=993497028, 2011 natural disasters in the United States, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles containing potentially dated statements from March 2016, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with failed verification from February 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Port of Hachinohe area – 8–9 metres (26–30 ft), Sendai section of Shiogama-Sendai port – 8 metres (26 ft). 9th of March 2011. [268] Rolling blackouts began on 14 March due to power shortages caused by the earthquake. More than 5,000 aftershocks hit Japan in the year after the earthquake, the largest a magnitude 7.9. [306], Japan declared a state of emergency following the failure of the cooling system at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting in the evacuation of nearby residents. [194][196], After a 2 m (6 ft 7 in) high surge hit Chile, it was reported that the reflection from those surges traveled back across the Pacific, causing a 30–60 cm (12–24 in) surge in Japan, 47–48 hours after the earthquake, according to observation from multiple tide stations [ja], including in Onahama, Owase, and Kushimoto. A 5.5 magnitude earthquake struck off Tohoku Region in northern Honshu, Japan, at around 16:18 JST on Saturday. Sendai was the nearest major city to the earthquake, 130 km (81 mi) from the epicenter; the earthquake occurred 373 km (232 mi) northeast of Tokyo. There have been no immediate reports of damage or casualties as a result of the earthquake. [338], A tsunami flooded Sendai Airport at 15:55 JST,[134] about 1 hour after the initial quake, causing severe damage. [173][174], Shortly after the earthquake, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Hawaii issued tsunami watches and announcements for locations in the Pacific. The 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami was a 9.0-magnitude earthquake followed by tsunami waves. NHK BS News reported 2011-04-03-02:55 JST, One estimate of 10–15 minutes came from German seismologist Rainer Kind of the, Another estimate of 15–30 minutes came from Vasily V. Titov, director of the. [401], 2011 magnitude 9.0 - 9.1 earthquake off the coast of Japan, "2011 Miyagi earthquake" redirects here. [177] The United States National Tsunami Warning Center issued a tsunami warning for the coastal areas in most of California, all of Oregon, and the western part of Alaska, and a tsunami advisory covering the Pacific coastlines of most of Alaska, and all of Washington and British Columbia, Canada. [82] Three other prefectures—Fukushima, Ibaraki and Tochigi—recorded an upper 6 on the JMA scale. The expressway did not reopen to general public use until 24 March 2011. [36][70][71] Three tsunami deposits have been identified within the Holocene sequence of the plain, all formed within the last 3,000 years, suggesting an 800 to 1,100 year recurrence interval for large tsunamigenic earthquakes. meeting of CCEP, Coordinating Committee for Earthquake Prediction, "中日新聞:災害義援金受け付け 東日本大震災:中日新聞からのお知らせ(CHUNICHI Web)", "東日本巨大地震 震災掲示板 : 特集 : YOMIURI ONLINE(読売新聞)", "番組表 – TOKYO FM 80.0 MHz – 80.Love FM RADIO STATION", USGS Updates Magnitude of Japan's 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake to 9.03, "Japan earthquake and tsunami of 2011 | Facts & Death Toll", "Tsunami, earthquake, nuclear crisis – now Japan faces power cuts", "Japan quake – 7th largest in recorded history", "March 11th tsunami a record 40.5 metres high NHK", "Japan earthquake: Tsunami hits north-east", "Quake Moves Japan Closer to U.S. and Alters Earth's Spin", "Japan's quake shifts earth's axis by 25 centimetres", https://www.npa.go.jp/news/other/earthquake2011/pdf/higaijokyo_e.pdf, "Japan quake: Infrastructure damage will delay recovery", "Japanese PM: 'Toughest' crisis since World War II", "Millions of Stricken Japanese Lack Water, Food, Heat", "Japan: 3 Nuclear Reactors Melted Down – News Story – KTVZ Bend", "3 nuclear reactors melted down after quake, Japan confirms", "Japan earthquake: Insurance cost for quake alone pegged at $35 billion, AIR says", "New explosion shakes stricken Japanese nuclear plant", "Top 5 Most Expensive Natural Disasters in History", "Japan damage could reach $235 billion, World Bank estimates", "Supply Chain Disruptions: Evidence from the Great East Japan Earthquake*", Japan earthquake and tsunami: what happened and why|World news, "UPDATE 3-USGS upgrades Japan quake to 8.9 magnitude", "USGS Updates Magnitude of Japan's 2011 Tōhoku Earthquake to 9.0", "地震情報 – 2011年3月10日 15時6分 – 日本気象協会 tenki.jp", "地震情報 – 2011年3月11日 15時15分 – 日本気象協会 tenki.jp", "Earthquake strikes near Japan's Fukushima nuclear plant; no reports of damage", "Challenges of anticipating the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami using coastal geology", "The future of tsunami research following the 2011 Tōhoku-oki event", "The 869 Jōgan tsunami deposit and recurrence interval of large-scale tsunami on the Pacific coast of northeast Japan", "newspaper: Japan earthquake and tsunami: what happened and why", "Size of Japan's quake surprises seismologists", "時事ドットコム:M8.8、死者300人超=行方不明540人以上−大津波10m・宮城で震度7", "asahi.com(朝日新聞社):地殻破壊3連鎖、計6分 専門家、余震拡大に警鐘 – 東日本大震災", "Japan Meteorological Agency | Earthquake Information", "Information message about destructive earthquake near the eastern coast of Honshu Island of Japana on March 11, 2011", "The 2011 Japan Earthquake, Tsunami and Nuclear Disaster", "Preliminary report of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake", "Asian Disaster Reduction Center (ADRC) Information Sharing on Disaster Reduction", "March 11, 2011 M9.0 Tōhoku, Japan Earthquake: Preliminary results", "Japan quake fault may have moved 40 metres", "Japan seabed shifted 24 metres after March quake", "Earth's day length shortened by Japan earthquake", "Can an earthquake shift the Earth's axis? The heat build-up caused the generation of hydrogen gas. [263] On 12 March 252 dams were inspected and it was discovered that six embankment dams had shallow cracks on their crests. [39][74] The Pacific plate, which moves at a rate of 8 to 9 cm (3.1 to 3.5 in) per year, dips under Honshu's underlying plate, building large amounts of elastic energy. [140] At least 101 designated tsunami evacuation sites were hit by the wave. Aftershocks decrease in frequency as a function of time following the mainshock. Japan's monster quake: Do scientists have key to decode future tremblors? [190] The surge in Chile was large enough to damage more than 200 houses,[191] with waves of up to 3 m (9.8 ft). 3. [269] TEPCO, which normally provides approximately 40 GW of electricity, announced that it could only provide about 30 GW, because 40% of the electricity used in the greater Tokyo area was supplied by reactors in the Niigata and Fukushima prefectures. Aftershocks continued, many exceeding magnitude-7.0. The north eastern ports of Hachinohe, Sendai, Ishinomaki and Onahama were destroyed, while the Port of Chiba (which serves the hydrocarbon industry) and Japan's ninth-largest container port at Kashima were also affected, though less severely. The loss of electrical power halted cooling systems, causing heat to build up. Kyodo News, "Disney reality check for the stuck", List of foreshocks and aftershocks of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake, fourth most powerful earthquake in the world, Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer, Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity scale, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Geospatial Information Authority of Japan, Timeline of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, early warning system that detected the earthquake, Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties, Historic Monuments and Sites of Hiraizumi, Aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, Humanitarian response to the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, "Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures... 8 March 2019", "Damage Situation and Police Countermeasures... 8 June 2018", "M 9.1 – near the east coast of Honshu, Japan", "How the 2011 Earthquake in Japan Affected the Global Economy", "Japan Tsunami Strikes Indonesia, One Confirmed Dead", "Body found in Oregon identified as missing tsunami victim", Tsunami victim remains wash ashore near Fort Stevens, "Body of Calif. man killed by tsunami washes up", "New USGS number puts Japan quake at 4th largest", "Tsunami hits north-eastern Japan after massive quake", "Press Conference by Prime Minister Naoto Kan", "Quake shifted Japan coast about 13 feet, knocked Earth 6.5 inches off axis", "The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake ~first report~", Abstract of the 191th [sic!] [172], Delayed evacuations in response to the warnings had a number of causes. The earthquake and the tragic losses had been served as a significant inspiration for the Japan women's national football team, in which, in the 2011 FIFA Women's World Cup, managed to create the greatest giant-killing ever in the history where Japan came from nothing to become world champions despite the devastating earthquake and lack of funding for the team; the Nadeshiko itself also unveiled banner to thank global support despite adverse situations at home. The GPS station located nearest the epicenter moved almost 4 m (13 ft). The Tōhoku Earthquake was a magnitude-nine earthquake that struck the northeastern coast of Japan. [390][391] The Japanese government had tracked plate movements since 1976 in preparation for the so-called Tokai earthquake, predicted to take place in that region. Initially, the earthquake caused sinking of part of Honshu's Pacific coast by up to roughly a metre, but after about three years, the coast rose back and kept on rising to exceed its original height. The earthquake has not prompted any tsunami advisories. By 9:30 UTC on 11 March 2011, Google Person Finder, which was previously used in the Haitian, Chilean, and Christchurch, New Zealand earthquakes, was collecting information about survivors and their locations. The tsunami resulted in over 340,000 displaced people in the Tōhoku region, and shortages of food, water, shelter, medicine, and fuel for survivors. Date: Mar 27th, 1964. [144] According to a special committee on disaster prevention designated by the Japanese government, the tsunami protection policy had been intended to deal with only tsunamis that had been scientifically proved to occur repeatedly. After the 2011 disaster the UNISDR, United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction, held its World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction in Tohoku in March 2015, which produced the Sendai Framework document to guide efforts by international development agencies to act before disasters instead of reacting to them after the fact. Deaths: 141. [322], A fire occurred in the turbine section of the Onagawa Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake. [354][355] Within Japan, only a few websites were initially unreachable. [333][334] All railway services were suspended in Tokyo, with an estimated 20,000 people stranded at major stations across the city. [256][257], The Fujinuma irrigation dam in Sukagawa ruptured,[258] causing flooding and the washing away of five homes. [387], Also, following the earthquake, for the first time in Japanese history, the Emperor addressed the nation in a pre-recorded television broadcast.[388][389]. [345], Derailments were minimized because of an early warning system that detected the earthquake before it struck. Two months after the earthquake, mangaka Hirohiko Araki incorporated the earthquake itself into the story of JoJolion, the eighth installment of the JoJo's Bizarre Adventure series; while JoJolion is set several months after the fictional town of Morioh was devastated by the earthquake, the earthquake has a key role in the plot as it is the cause behind the emergence of the Wall Eyes, mysterious stone structures that ultimately set the story into motion. [201][202], The Geospatial Information Authority of Japan reported land subsidence based on the height of triangulation stations in the area measured by GPS as compared to their previous values from 14 April 2011. Japan has been on high alert ever since its last major disaster, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake - known as the 3/11 Earthquake – was the most powerful tremor ever … [37][52] Japanese Prime Minister Naoto Kan said, "In the 65 years after the end of World War II, this is the toughest and the most difficult crisis for Japan. Such discrepancies in the warning were attributed by the JMA to the system's inability to distinguish between two different earthquakes that happened at around same time, as well as to the reduced number of reporting seismometers due to power outages and connection fails. Cellular and landline phone service suffered major disruptions in the affected area. "[386], Nine days after the earthquake hit, a visualization and sonification were uploaded to YouTube allowing listeners to hear the earthquake as it unfolded in time. Its epicenter was underwater, 66 km (41 mi) off the coast of Sendai. 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