If Hessian fly pressure is anticipated, selection of wheat varieties resistant to Hessian fly biotype-L is a good idea (see the. This means that late-planted wheat may avoid powdery mildew, but it is also likely to suffer from lower yields and attack by cereal leaf beetle. If rainfall occurs early, wheat can be planted in the last second half of October Ideal Late Between first and third week of Before Zimbabwe's independence in 1980, When DON reaches 2 parts per million (ppm), the grain is no longer fit for human consumption and cannot be sold to a flour mill. Planting too late will reduce yields, increase the risk of having a winter annual weed problem, and result in thin stands that will attract cereal leaf beetles. Fields with a history of italian ryegrass or wild garlic should be avoided because there are no good organic methods for controlling these weeds. The Mid-Atlantic states experience a significant wheat stripe rust epidemic only in about one out of four or five years. Planting wheat into old wheat stubble is always a bad idea. This is especially true of wheat that is planted near the dates shown in Figure 4-1. Farmers in the wheat, barley and sorghum farming industry primarily grow one or more varieties of wheat or a combination of sorghum, barley, oats, rye and other grains, where no single crop accounts for more than half of the total value of production of the farm. The cereal leaf beetle has one generation each year, and both the adult and larval stages eat leaf tissue on wheat and oats. Certified seed fields are inspected for loose smut, and strict standards are enforced. Infection occurs at or soon after flowering, when fungal spores reach small grain heads by wind or rain-splash. If this grain is planted, the seedlings may be infected with SNB. While leaf rust can occur anywhere in North Carolina, it is most likely to be a problem in the coastal plain and tidewater. Total planted wheat acreage in the 2018-2019 season (180,000) was down slightly from the previous year but slightly ahead of 2017. Organic producers who use farmer-saved seed should never plant seed from a crop infected with loose smut. Organic producers in the NC coastal plain who want high-yielding wheat must plant mildew-resistant varieties. Generally an upward trend in wheat production from 1960 to 1990, although some noticeable deeps were observed in 1979, 1980 and 1984 (Figure 1). Currently, India is second largest producer of Wheat in the world after China with about 12% share in total world Wheat production. Hard red winter wheat … Wheat is a moderately heavy feeder, but not as heavy as corn. Sustainably grown food is big business for food companies, but few farmers are seeing the benefits. Essentially all weed control in organic wheat must be achieved in seedbed preparation before planting. They injure the plants by sucking sap or by transmitting barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). The uneven stands from broadcasting often result in lower yields compared with drilling. Consequently, SNB can be seedborne. A short-term alternative to liming is banding of phosphate fertil-izer with the seed, or planting acid-tolerant wheat varieties. Conventional producers often do not consider powdery mildew in their planning because they can rely on foliar fungicides to control the disease if it occurs. NC State University and NC See Chapter 10: Weed Management, for more information on weed management in organic production systems. Choose varieties with resistance to disease and insect pests. Short small grain rotations also put the crop at high risk to soilborne diseases such as take-all. 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